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Change Point Problems in Linear Dynamical Systems

Onno Zoeter, Tom Heskes; 6(67):1999−2026, 2005.


We study the problem of learning two regimes (we have a normal and a prefault regime in mind) based on a train set of non-Markovian observation sequences. Key to the model is that we assume that once the system switches from the normal to the prefault regime it cannot restore and will eventually result in a fault. We refer to the particular setting as semi-supervised since we assume the only information given to the learner is whether a particular sequence ended with a stop (implying that the sequence was generated by the normal regime) or with a fault (implying that there was a switch from the normal to the fault regime). In the latter case the particular time point at which a switch occurred is not known.

The underlying model used is a switching linear dynamical system (SLDS). The constraints in the regime transition probabilities result in an exact inference procedure that scales quadratically with the length of a sequence. Maximum aposteriori (MAP) parameter estimates can be found using an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with this inference algorithm in the E-step. For long sequences this will not be practically feasible and an approximate inference and an approximate EM procedure is called for. We describe a flexible class of approximations corresponding to different choices of clusters in a Kikuchi free energy with weak consistency constraints.

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