## Estimation of Non-Normalized Statistical Models by Score Matching

** Aapo Hyvärinen**; 6(24):695−709, 2005.

### Abstract

One often wants to estimate statistical models where the probability density function is known only up to a multiplicative normalization constant. Typically, one then has to resort to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, or approximations of the normalization constant. Here, we propose that such models can be estimated by minimizing the expected squared distance between the gradient of the log-density given by the model and the gradient of the log-density of the observed data. While the estimation of the gradient of log-density function is, in principle, a very difficult non-parametric problem, we prove a surprising result that gives a simple formula for this objective function. The density function of the observed data does not appear in this formula, which simplifies to a sample average of a sum of some derivatives of the log-density given by the model. The validity of the method is demonstrated on multivariate Gaussian and independent component analysis models, and by estimating an overcomplete filter set for natural image data.

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