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Determining the Number of Latent Factors in Statistical Multi-Relational Learning

Chengchun Shi, Wenbin Lu, Rui Song; 20(23):1−38, 2019.


Statistical relational learning is primarily concerned with learning and inferring relationships between entities in large-scale knowledge graphs. Nickel et al. (2011) proposed a RESCAL tensor factorization model for statistical relational learning, which achieves better or at least comparable results on common benchmark data sets when compared to other state-of-the-art methods. Given a positive integer $s$, RESCAL computes an $s$-dimensional latent vector for each entity. The latent factors can be further used for solving relational learning tasks, such as collective classification, collective entity resolution and link-based clustering. The focus of this paper is to determine the number of latent factors in the RESCAL model. Due to the structure of the RESCAL model, its log-likelihood function is not concave. As a result, the corresponding maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) may not be consistent. Nonetheless, we design a specific pseudometric, prove the consistency of the MLEs under this pseudometric and establish its rate of convergence. Based on these results, we propose a general class of information criteria and prove their model selection consistencies when the number of relations is either bounded or diverges at a proper rate of the number of entities. Simulations and real data examples show that our proposed information criteria have good finite sample properties.

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