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Second-Order Bilinear Discriminant Analysis

Christoforos Christoforou, Robert Haralick, Paul Sajda, Lucas C. Parra; 11(21):665−685, 2010.


Traditional analysis methods for single-trial classification of electro-encephalography (EEG) focus on two types of paradigms: phase-locked methods, in which the amplitude of the signal is used as the feature for classification, that is, event related potentials; and second-order methods, in which the feature of interest is the power of the signal, that is, event related (de)synchronization. The process of deciding which paradigm to use is ad hoc and is driven by assumptions regarding the underlying neural generators. Here we propose a method that provides an unified framework for the analysis of EEG, combining first and second-order spatial and temporal features based on a bilinear model. Evaluation of the proposed method on simulated data shows that the technique outperforms state-of-the art techniques for single-trial classification for a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios. Evaluations on human EEG−including one benchmark data set from the Brain Computer Interface (BCI) competition−show statistically significant gains in classification accuracy, with a reduction in overall classification error from 26%-28% to 19%.

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