## Task Clustering and Gating for Bayesian Multitask Learning

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Bart Bakker, Tom Heskes**; 4(May):83-99, 2003.

### Abstract

Modeling a collection of similar regression or classification tasks can be improved by making the tasks 'learn from each other'. In machine learning, this subject is approached through 'multitask learning', where parallel tasks are modeled as multiple outputs of the same network. In multilevel analysis this is generally implemented through the mixed-effects linear model where a distinction is made between 'fixed effects', which are the same for all tasks, and 'random effects', which may vary between tasks. In the present article we will adopt a Bayesian approach in which some of the model parameters are shared (the same for all tasks) and others more loosely connected through a joint prior distribution that can be learned from the data. We seek in this way to combine the best parts of both the statistical multilevel approach and the neural network machinery.

The standard assumption expressed in both approaches is that each task can learn equally well from any other task. In this article we extend the model by allowing more differentiation in the similarities between tasks. One such extension is to make the prior mean depend on higher-level task characteristics. More unsupervised clustering of tasks is obtained if we go from a single Gaussian prior to a mixture of Gaussians. This can be further generalized to a mixture of experts architecture with the gates depending on task characteristics.

All three extensions are demonstrated through application both on an artificial data set and on two real-world problems, one a school problem and the other involving single-copy newspaper sales.