Two Distributed-State Models For Generating High-Dimensional Time Series

Graham W. Taylor, Geoffrey E. Hinton, Sam T. Roweis; 12(Mar):1025−1068, 2011.


In this paper we develop a class of nonlinear generative models for high-dimensional time series. We first propose a model based on the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that uses an undirected model with binary latent variables and real-valued "visible" variables. The latent and visible variables at each time step receive directed connections from the visible variables at the last few time-steps. This "conditional" RBM (CRBM) makes on-line inference efficient and allows us to use a simple approximate learning procedure. We demonstrate the power of our approach by synthesizing various sequences from a model trained on motion capture data and by performing on-line filling in of data lost during capture.
We extend the CRBM in a way that preserves its most important computational properties and introduces multiplicative three-way interactions that allow the effective interaction weight between two variables to be modulated by the dynamic state of a third variable. We introduce a factoring of the implied three-way weight tensor to permit a more compact parameterization. The resulting model can capture diverse styles of motion with a single set of parameters, and the three-way interactions greatly improve its ability to blend motion styles or to transition smoothly among them.
Videos and source code can be found at


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